Singular nouns are words for one person, place, or thing.
Plural nouns are words for two or more persons, places, or things.
Common nouns are words for any person, place, or thing. Common nouns are capitalized only when they are the first word of a sentence.
Examples are: general, tower, city, day, year, war, peace
Proper nouns are the names of people, places, things, or titles. Proper nouns are always capitalized.
Examples: General Eisenhower, the Tower of London, New Year’s Day, or ‘War and Peace‘ by Leo Tolsty.
Abstract nouns are words for things that you cannot detect with your physical senses; you cannot see, hear, smell, taste, or touch them. An abstract noun is a word for something that is known, learned, understood, thought, or felt emotionally.
Examples: tolerance, optimism, hatred, leisure, and gratitude.
Concrete nouns are words for things that can be detected by any of the physical senses; things that can be seen, heard, smelled, tasted, or touched.
Count nouns are nouns for things that can be counted, they have a singular and plural form.
Examples: one hand, two hands; one monkey, a barrel of monkeys; one dollar, a million dollars; and one man, two men.
Non-count (mass) nouns are things that can’t be counted; they are words for substances and some abstract nouns for concepts.
Example substances: flour, sand, rice, aluminum, oxygen.
Example concepts: knowledge, harm, advice, news, or homework.
Possessive nouns are words that show that something in the sentence belongs to that noun; possessives are shown by adding an apostrophe -s to the end of the word, or occasionally just an apostrophe for some nouns that already end with -s.
Examples: the child’s toys, the teacher’s desk, the pie’s crust, the elephant’s baby, the bus’s tire, or the bosses’ meeting.
Collective nouns are words for a group nouns for multiples of thing, animals or people.
Examples: a crowd of onlookers, a bouquet of flowers, a herd of cattle, a team of players, a row of houses, or a pod of whales.
Compound nouns are nouns made up of two or more words merged into one word with a meaning of its own. There are three types of compound nouns:
· open spaced: tennis shoe, front door, paint brush
· hyphenated: mother-in-law, fifty-five, six-pack
· closed: bathtub, baseball, houseboat
Gerunds (verbal nouns) are the present participle of a verb (the -ing word) that functions as a noun as the subject of a sentence or clause and the object of a verb or preposition.
Examples: ‘I went fishing.’; ‘Walking is good exercise.’; Talking will get you nowhere, try some doing.
Material nouns are words for things that other things are made from. Some examples are flour, milk, concrete, sand, oil, plastic, cotton, fabric, wool, or wood.