Plot: the sequence of events that take place in a story.
Setting: the time and place in which the events of a story take place.
Characterization: the methods used to present the personality of a character in a narrative.
|Direct–the author describes the character. Example–She was a large woman with a large purse.|
|Indirect–the reader judges what the character is like based on what they say or do, or what other characters say about them. Example–We believe the narrator of “The Tell-Tale Heart” is crazy because he talks nervously and frequently repeats himself.|
Atmosphere: the general mood or feeling established in a piece of literature. Atmosphere is created through word choice and pacing.
|Word Choice–the author uses words that make the reader feel a certain way. A spooky atmosphere is created in “The Tell-Tale Heart” through the use of words like “hideous,” “marrow,” “chilled,” and “nervous.”|
|Pacing–the author controls the speed at which we read through sentence length, punctuation, repetition of words and other techniques.|
Point of View: who is narrating the story (2 main types: First Person, Third Person)
|First person: the narrator uses “I” to tell the action, and is involved in the story.|
|Third person: the story is told from a perspective outside the story. The characters are referred to by name, or as he, she or they.|
Conflict: the central problem that drives the action of a story. (two main types)
|Internal: The conflict happens in a character’s mind. A character with a guilty conscience is an example of internal conflict.|
|External: The conflict happens between characters, or between a character and some outside force, like nature. Sherlock Holmes pursuing a criminal is an example of external conflict.|