1. Adjunction: Adjunction refers to a clause or a phrase, usually a verb, that is added at the beginning of a sentence.
2.Allegory: This figure of speech is an extended metaphor where the characters or actions in a literary work have a more imaginative meaning.
3.Alliteration: A repetition of particular consonant sound at the beginning of each word in close succession. Though alliteration is mainly consonant sounds, sometimes vowel sounds are also repeated. This figure of speech is primarily used in poetry.
4.Allusion: An allusion is an indirect or brief reference to a person, place or thing in a literary work.
5.Antithesis: An antithesis is a figure of speech where there is a juxtaposition of two contrasting ideas in a balanced clause or sentence.
6.Apostrophe: In this figure of speech, a non-existent or absent person is addressed. In literary pieces, this figure of speech usually starts with an exclamation ‘O’.
7.Climax: In climax, the words or clauses are arranged in ascending order of importance. These phrases have a similar theme and arranged in increasing order according to the impact they create on the reader.
8.Euphemism: A figure of speech where an offensive or rude word is substituted by a polite and gentle word. The technique is to use a neutral language so as not to sound offensive to the receiver.
9.Hyperbole: It is used while exaggerating something. This figure of speech is mainly used in several jokes or as a way of insult. It is to dramatize a normal situation or to make it look worse.
10.Irony: Irony is used to convey the opposite meaning of a word. It is usually used in sarcasm or in humor. It is also used to convey an ugly truth in a subtle manner.
11.Metaphor: Metaphor is used for the purpose of comparison with a thing which is not applicable to it literally. It is an indirect comparison of two unrelated things.
12.Metonymy: In metonymy, the name of one thing is replaced with something that is closely related to it. In common terms, it is also known as misnomer or transmutation.
13.Onomatopoeia: This figure of speech imitates the sounds produced by the objects or actions.
14.Oxymoron: Using a contradictory term to define a situation, object or event is oxymoron.
15.Personification: Associating an inanimate object to human quality.
16.Simile: Simile is a figure of speech where two essentially unlike things are compared with each other, using ‘as’, ‘than’ or ‘like’.
17.Synecdoche: It is a part of speech similar to metonymy, where a part of a particular object is used to refer to the whole thing.