Magnitude is the logarithmic measure of the brightness of an object, in astronomy, measured in a specific wavelength or passband, usually in optical or near-infrared wavelengths.
The magnitude system dates back roughly 2000 years to the Greek astronomer Hipparchus (or the Alexandrian astronomer Ptolemy—references vary) who classified stars by their apparent brightness, which they saw as size (“magnitude means bigness. To the unaided eye, a more prominent star such as Sirius or Arcturus appears larger than a less prominent star such as Mizar, which in turn appears larger than a truly faint star such as Alcor. The following quote from 1736 gives an excellent description of the ancient naked-eye magnitude system:
In physics, tension is the pulling force exerted by a string, cable, chain, or similar solid object on another object. It results from the net electrostatic attraction between the particles in a solid when it is deformed so that the particles are further apart from each other than when at equilibrium, where this force is balanced by repulsion due toelectron shells; as such, it is the pull exerted by a solid trying to restore its original, more compressed shape. Tension is the opposite of compression. Slackening is the reduction of tension.
As tension is the magnitude of a force, it is measured in newtons (or sometimes pounds-force) and is always measured parallel to the string on which it applies. There are two basic possibilities for systems of objects held by strings: Either acceleration is zero and the system is therefore in equilibrium, or there is acceleration and therefore a net force is present. Note that a string is assumed to have negligible mass.
The tension force is the force which is transmitted through a string, rope, cable or wire when it is pulled tight by forces acting from opposite ends. The tension force is directed along the length of the wire and pulls equally on the objects on the opposite ends of the wire.